Ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka (Transfer of land rights, Cession des droits fonciers)

Intangiriro

“Buri muntu afite uburenganzira ku mutungo bwite, waba uwe ku giti cye cyangwa uwo afatanyije n’abandi.” Ibi ni ibiteganywa n’Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo kuwa 04 Kamena 2003 nk’uko ryavuguruwe kugeza ubu mu ngingo yaryo ya 29 igika cya mbere.

Igika cya 2 n’icya 3 by’iyi ngingo, bigakomeza bigira biti Umutungo bwite, uw’umuntu ku giti cye cyangwa uwo asangiye n’abandi ntuvogerwa.

Ntushobora guhungabanywa keretse ku mpamvu z’inyungu rusange mu bihe no mu buryo buteganywa n’amategeko kandi habanje gutangwa indishyi ikwiye.”

Niyo mpamvu, umuntu ashobora gutanga, kugurisha, kugurana, gutangaho ingwate umutungo we igihe no mu buryo abyumvamo, ntawe abanje kubisabira uburenganzira.

Cyakora, ubutaka bwo, bufite umwihariko kuko umuntu atabukoresha uko abyumva gusa, ahubwo agomba kubukoresha yubahiriza ibiteganywa n’Itegeko rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda. Ibi biteganywa n’ingingo ya 30 y’Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo kuwa 04 Kamena 2003 nk’uko ryavuguruwe kugeza ubu aho igira iti:

Umutungo bwite w’ubutaka n’ubundi burenganzira ku butaka bitangwa na Leta.

Itegeko rigena uburyo bwo kubutanga, kubuhererekanya no kubukoresha.”

Muri iyi nyandiko turibanda ku burenganzira bwo guhererekanya ubutaka.

Nk’uko twabivuze haruguru, buri wese afite uburenganzira busesuye ku mutungo we; niyo mpamvu muri rusange, ushaka kugira icyo akora ku mutungo we, nta mihango idasanzwe agomba kubahiriza uretse kuba afite ubushake n’ububasha bwo gukora igikorwa runaka kuri uwo mutungo.

Urugero: Umuntu ushaka gutanga mudasobwa ye (computer) cyangwa igitoki akuye mu murima we, nta wundi muntu cyangwa urwego runaka, agomba kubisabira uburenganzira kugira ngo icyo gikorwa cyo gutanga cyangwa kugurisha iyo mudasobwa/igitoki, kigire agaciro ndetse n’uwayihawe cyangwa wayiguze, ayigireho uburenganzira busesuye.

Ariko ku bijyanye no guhererekanya ubutaka (urugero: gutanga, kugurisha, kuzungura,…) itegeko riteganya imihango igomba kubahirizwa kugira ngo ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira kuri ubwo butaka rigire agaciro.

Uburyo bikorwamo buri mu bice bitatu by’ingenzi ari byo:

  • Abafite uburenganzira bwo gukora ihererekanya ry’ubutaka,
  • Uburyo bw’ihererekanya ry’ubutaka,
  • Inzego zifite ububasha bwo kwemeza ihererekanya n’inzira bicamo
  1. Abafite uburenganzira bwo gukora ihererekanya ry’ubutaka

Ingingo ya 22 y’Itegeko no 43/2013 ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda igira iti:“Ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka iryo ari ryo ryose rikozwe n’uhagarariye umuryango rigomba kubanza kwemezwa n’abanditse bose ku mpapurompamo z’ubutaka. Umuntu udafite ububasha ahabwa n’amategeko bwo guhagararira inyungu ze, ahagararirwa n’uwabiherewe uburenganzira ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko.

Kwemeza ihererekanya ry’ubutaka kw’abagize umuryango bikorwa mu nyandiko nyakuri ishyirwaho umukono cyangwa igikumwe ikorewe imbere ya Noteri ushinzwe iby’ubutaka.”

Twibutse ko inyandiko nyakuri ari kimwe n’inyandiko mpamo[1].

Ihame ni uko nyiri ubutaka wanditse ku mpapurompamo, ari we wenyine ufite uburenganzira bwo guhererekanya uburenganzira ku butaka. Bivuga ko ntawundi n’umwe ubyemerewe uretse uwo yaba yabihereye uburenganzira, mu buryo buteganywa n’amategeko.

Iyo ubutaka busangiwe n’abantu benshi, bagomba bose kwemeza iherekanya ryabwo kandi bakabikorera imbere ya Noteri ushinzwe iby’ubutaka.

  • Ese iyo umwe mubanditse ku nyandikompamo adashobora kuboneka bigenda bite?

Iyo umwe mubanditse ku mpapurompamo z’ubutaka atabonetse mugihe cy’ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka, agomba kugira uwo aha ububasha bwo kumuhagararira (power of attorney, procuration).

Inyandiko itanga ubwo bubasha, igomba gukorerwa imbere ya Noteri wemewe mu Rwanda.

Iyo utanga ububasha bwo guhagararirwa ari mu mahanga, inyandiko itanga ububasha ikorerwa:

  • imbere ya Noteri ubifitiye ububasha, hashingiwe ku mategeko y’Igihugu aherereyemo kandi bikemezwa n’ambasade y’u Rwanda cyangwa uhagarariye u Rwanda muri icyo gihugu; cyangwa;
  • imbere y’Ambasaderi cyangwa Umunyamabanga wa mbere w’Ambasade muri icyo gihugu;

Cyakora, nk’uko biteganywa n’Itegeko no 13bis/2014 ryo ku wa 21/05/2014 rigenga umurimo w’ubunoteri, mu ngingo yaryo 12, igika cya 2, “……mbere yo gukoreshwa mu Rwanda, inyandiko zashyizweho umukono n’Ambasaderi cyangwa Umunyamabanga wa mbere muri Ambasade zigomba kubanza kwemezwa na Minisiteri ifite ububanyi n’amahanga mu nshingano zayo”.

Icyitonderwa: Ni byiza ko utanga ububasha bwo guhagararirwa, agaragaza ku buryo bweruye aho ububasha atanze butangirira naho bugarukira kugira ngo bugire agaciro ndetse n’uwabuhawe atazarengera[2].

  • Ese iyo impapurompamo zanditse kuri umwe gusa mubashyingiranywe bigenda bite?

Iki kibazo twumva cyasubizwa ku buryo bunyuranye, bitewe n’uburyo bw’imicungire y’umutungo abashyingiranywe bahisemo hagati y’ivangamutungo rusange, ivangamutungo w’umuhahano ndetse n’ivanguramutungo risesuye,

Iyo abashakanye basezeranye ivanagamutung rusange: Biba bisobanura ko ibyo batunze byose, byaba ibyo buri wese yari afite mbere y’ishyingirwa ndetse n’ibyo bashakanye harimo n’ubutaka babisangiye ku buryo bungana, bivuga ko buri wese abifiteho uruhare rungana na 50%. Birashoboka rero ko umwe mu bashyingiranywe yaba yari afite ubutaka bumwanditseho wenyine, nyuma yishyingirwa ntihabeho guhinduza inyandikompamo z’ubutaka kugira ngo abashyingiranywe babwandikweho bombi. Aha twakwibaza uko byagenda mu gihe ubwo butaka bwaba bwagurishijwe kandi hagomba gukorwa ihererekanya ryabwo hagati y’uwaguze n’uwagurishije.

Itegeko rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda ntacyo ryavuze kuri iki kibazo, kuko nk’uko twabibonye, riteganya ko “Ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka iryo ari ryo ryose rikozwe n’uhagarariye umuryango rigomba kubanza kwemezwa n’abanditse bose ku mpapurompamo z’ubutaka.” Kandi ku birebana n’uru rugero, impapurompamo zanditseho umwe gusa. Ese undi nawe azabanza kwemeza iryo hererekanya kandi ntaho yanditse.

N’ubwo bimeze bitya, bitewe n’uko iyo abantu basezeranye ivangamutungo rusange baba basangiye byose, nta hererekanya ry’ubutaka ryagombye gukorwa, abashyinganywe batabyemeje bombi. Cyakora, biri amahire, kuko bimwe mu bisabwa mugihe cy’ihererekanya ry’ubutaka, harimo ibyangombwa by’irangamimerere (ibigaragaza niba umuntu ari ingaragu, yarashyingiwe cyangwa ari umupfakazi), bityo rero, iyo basanze yarashyingiwe ivangamutungo rusange bamusaba ko n’uwo bashyingiranywe aza kwemeza iryo hererekanya; kuko bitabaye ibyo, umwe mubashyingiranywe yaba akoze ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka bwose kandi abufiteho uburenganzira bungana na 50% gusa. Niyo mpamvu, dusanga byari kuba byiza iyo Itegeko rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda, riza no guteganya ko “kubashyiranywe ivangamutungo rusange ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka ribanza kwemezwa n’abashyingiranywe bombi kabone n’iyo umwe muri bo ari we wanditse ku mpapurompamo z’ubutaka.”

Iyo abashyingiranywe basezeranye ivangamutungu w’umuhahano: Bitewe n’uko baba basangiye ibyo bashyize hamwe bigize iremezo ry’ibihahano ndetse n’ibyo bahahanye byose nyuma y’ishyingirwa, mugihe ubutaka buhererekanywa buri mu mutungo basangiye, iryo hererekanya rigomba kubanza kwemezwa nabo bombi, kabone niyo umwe ari we waba wanditse ku mpapurompamo z’ubutaka. Ariko rero, mugihe ubutaka buhererekanywa, uwo bwanditseho yari abusanganywe mbere y’ishyingirwa kandi bukaba butari ku rutonde bw’umutungo ugize iremezo ry’ibihahano, niwe wenyine ugomba kwemeza iryo hererekanya, kuko mugenzi we nta ruhare na rumwe aba awufiteho.

Urugero: Mugabo yashyingiranywe n’Umwari ivangamutungo w’umuhahano. Icyo gihe Mugabo yari afite ibibanza bibiri bimwanditseho, kimwe kiri mu Karere ka Gasabo ikindi kiri mu Karere ka Musanze. Igihe cy’ishyingirwa, Mugabo yandikishije ikibanza kiri mu Karere ka Gasabo ku rutonde rw’umutungo ugize iremezo ry’ibihahano (bivuga ko iki kibanza agisangiye ku buryo bungana n’Umwari) naho ikibanza cyo mu Karere ka Musanze cyo cyakomeje kuba icye wenyine (bivuga ko Umwari nta ruhare na ruto agifiteho).

Dushingiye kuri uru rugero, birumvikana ko umunsi byabaye ngombwa ko ikibanza cyo mu Karere ka Gasabo kigurishwa, Mugabo n’Umwari bagomba kubanza kubyumvikanaho ndetse bombi bakemeza ko habaho ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira kuri icyo kibanza; ariko ikibanza cyo mu Karere ka Musanze, Mugabo azakigurisha atabanje gusaba Umwari uburenganzira ndetse anemeze wenyine ihererekanya ry’uburenzanzira kuri cyo.

Iyo abashyingiranywe basezeranye ivanguramutungo risesuye: Bitewe n’uko buri wese agumana uburenganzira bwose ku mutungo we bwite, yaba uwo yari asanganywe cyangwa yashatse nyuma yishyingirwa ahubwo akagumana inshingano zo gutanga ibitunga urugo hashingiye ku bushobozi bwe, uwanditse ku mpapurompamo niwe wenyine ufite uburenganzira bwo kwemeza ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka kuko mugenzi we nta ruhare aba abufiteho.

Dushingiye ku rugero twabonye haruguru, Mugabo n’Umwari baramutse barasezeranye ivanguramutungo risesuye, ibibanza byombi icyo mu Karere ka Gasabo n’icyo mu Karere ka Musanze bizakomeza bibe ibya Mugabo wenyine, Umwari we nta burenganzira abifiteho, bityo nta nubwo Mugabo azigera abanza kumusaba uburenganzira bwo kubigurisha cyangwa kugira ikindi abikoraho.

Cyakora, birashoboka ko abasezeranye ivanguramutungo risesuye, bagira ubutaka basangiye bakaba banditse ku mpapurompamo bombi nk’uko n’abandi batashyingiranywe bashobora gusangira ubutaka. Icyo gihe, no kwemeza ihererekanya ry’ubutaka bazabikora bombi.

Ikindi ni uko, nk’uko biteganywa n’ingingo ya 12 y’Itegeko Nº 22/99 ryo kuwa 12 Ugushyingo 1999, ryerekeye imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’izungura, umwe mu bashyingiranywe ivanguramutungo risesuye ubifitemo inyungu, ashobora gutambamira ihererekanya ry’ubutaka bwa mugenzi we, agaragaza ko agiye kwikenesha bityo bikaba byatuma adashobora kubahiriza inshingano ze zo guhahira urugo. Uko gutambamira iryo herererekanya ry’ubutaka rigomba kwemezwa n’urukiko.

Icyitonderwa: Ihame ry’uko abagize umuryango banditse ku mpapurompamo z’ubutaka aribo bonyine babanza kwemeza ihererekanya ryabwo, ni impinduka (reform) nziza kandi ikomeye yazanywe n’iri tegeko rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda ryo muri 2013 kuko ryakemuye ikibazo cyaterwaga n’ibyateganywaga n’itegeko rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda ryo muri 2005[3] ryakuweho aho ingingo zaryo za 35 na 36 zateganyaga ko ihererekanya rikozwe n’uhagarariye umuryango ribanza kwemezwa n’abagize uwo muryango bose: aribo abashakanye ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko ndetse n’abana babo bose.

Ibi rero byatezaga ikibazo gikomeye cyane igihe cy’ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka, ahanini gishingiye ku kuba bitari byoroshye kubonera rimwe abagize umuryango bose ndetse hakabaho n’ubwo bamwe muri bo banga ko iryo hererekanya ribaho. Bitewe n’uko ubutaka ari kimwe mu mitungo ikenerwa cyane mu iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’umuntu ki giti cye ndetse n’iry’igihugu muri rusange, idindizwa ry’ihererekanya ryabwo rigira ingaruka mbi ku iterambere ry’ubukungu bw’ababuhererekanya.

  1. Uburyo bw’ihererekanya ry’ubutaka

Nk’uko biteganywa n’Itegeko no 43/2013 ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda mu ngingo yaryo ya 21: Bitabangamiye ibiteganywa n’iri tegeko byerekeranye n’ubuso bw’ubutaka butemerewe kugabanywamo ibice, uburenganzira ku butaka bushobora guhererekanywa biciye mu izungura, impano, umurage, umunani, ikodeshwa, igurishwa, iyatisha, ingurane, inshingano yo gutanga inzira ku butaka bw’undi bukomoka ku miterere y’ahantu, gutangwaho ingwate n’ubundi buryo bwose bw’ihererekanya hakurikijwe uburyo bugenwa n’amategeko n’amabwiriza.”

Iyi ngingo igaragaza neza ko umuntu wese ashobora guhererekanya uburenganzira yari afite ku butaka, byaba ku buryo bwa burundu (izungura, impano, umurage, umunani, igurisha,…..) haba ku buryo bw’igihe kizwi (ikodesha, iyatisha, gutangwaho ingwate, ….)

  1. Inzego zifite ububasha bwo kwemeza ihererekanya n’inzira bicamo

Ihererekanya ry’ubutaka iryo ari ryo ryose, kugira ngo rigire agaciro, imihango irebana naryo igomba kwemezwa n’umukozi wa Leta wabiherewe ububasha n’amategeko, bitewe n’ubwoko bw’ihererekanya runaka.

Urugero: Ku bijyanye n’izungura, igurishwa n’impano, ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka, rigira agaciro ari uko ryakorewe imbere ya noteri mu bijyanye n’ibyubutaka kandi uburenganzira bwahererekanyijwe bugatangirwa icyemezo cy’iyandikisha, gitangwa n’Umubitsi w’Impampurompamo z’ubutaka (Registrar of land titles) mugihe ku bijyanye no gutanga ingwate, ihererekanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka ryemezwa n’Umwanditsi Mukuru w’ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi (Registrar General of companies).

Ikindi ni uko uretse kwemezwa n’umukozi ubifitiye ububasha, ihererkanya ry’uburenganzira ku butaka, rigomba gukorwa hubahirizwa inzira n’indi mihango yose biteganywa n’amategeko n’amabwiriza abigenga.

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Ibisobanuro:

[1] N’ubwo mu Itegeko no 43/2013 ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda mu ngingo yaryo ya 22 havugwa ijambo “inyandiko nyakuri”, Itegeko no 13bis/2014 ryo ku wa 21/05/2014 rigenga umurimo w’ubunoteri mu ngingo yaryo 2 y’ibisobanuro by’amagambo mu gace ka 3 hakoreshwa ijambo “Inyandiko mpamo” rikaba risobanura “inyandiko yanditswe cyangwa yakiranywe imihango yabugenewe n’umukozi wa Leta ufite ububasha bwo gukorera mu ifasi y’aho yandikiwe.” Ijambo Inyandiko mpamo mu rurimi rw’igifaransa ni “acte authentique” naho mu rurimi rw’icyongereza ikaba “authentic deed”.

[2] Itegeko ryerekeye imirimo nshinganwa cyangwa amasezerano [igitabo cya gatatu cy’urwunge rw’amategeko y’imbonezamubano] mu ngingo yaryo ya 530, riteganya ko iyo inyandiko yakozwe mu buryo rusange, uwahawe ububasha akora gusa ibikorwa byo gucunga umutungo. Mu gihe iyo uwahawe ububasha yemerewe kwegurira undi umutungo utimukanwa cyangwa kuwutangaho ingwate, inyandiko itanga ububasha igomba kubigaragaza ku buryo bweruye.

[3] Itegeko ngenga n° 08/2005 ryo ku wa 14/07/2005 rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda (ryavuyeho) mu ngingo zaryo za 35 na 36 ryateganyaga ibi bikurikira :

Ingingo ya 35: Gutanga burundu uburenganzira ku butaka, nko kubugurisha, kubutangira ubuntu cyangwa kubugurana, bikozwe n’uhagarariye umuryango bigomba kubanza kwemerwa n’abagize umuryango bose basangiye ubwo burenganzira.

Ingingo ya 36: Bitanyuranyije n’amategeko mbonezamubano agenga umuryango, abagize umuryango bavugwa mu ngingo ya 35 y’iri Tegeko Ngenga ni abashakanye ku buryo bwemewe n’amategeko, abana bagejeje ku myaka y’ubukure, abana bato batarageza kuri iyo myaka babihagarariwemo n’abashinzwe kubarera n’abandi badashoboye bahagarariwe n’abishingizi babo.

AMATEGEKO Y’IFASHISHIJWE MU ITEGURA RY’IYI NYANDIKO

  1. Itegeko Nshinga rya Repubulika y’u Rwanda ryo kuwa 04 Kamena 2003 nk’uko ryavuguruwe kugeza ubu;
  2. Itegeko No 43/2013 ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 rigenga ubutaka mu Rwanda (ryatangajwe mu Igazeti ya Leta nº idasanzwe yo kuwa 16/06/2013, Urupapuro rwa 8);
  3.  Itegeko Ngenga N° 08/2005 ryo ku wa 14/07/2005 rigena imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’ubutaka mu Rwanda (ryatangajwe mu Igazeti ya Leta no 18 yo kuwa 15/09/2005) ryakuweho n’ Itegeko Ngenga No 03/2013/OL ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 risimburwa Itegeko No 43/2013 ryo kuwa 16/06/2013 (byombi byatajwe mu Igazeti ya Leta nº idasanzwe yo kuwa 16/06/2013);
  4.  Itegeko no 13bis/2014 ryo ku wa 21/05/2014 rigenga umurimo w’ubunoteri (ryatangajwe mu Igazeti ya Leta nº idasanzwe bis yo ku wa 29/05/2014);
  1. Itegeko Nº 22/99 ryo kuwa 12 Ugushyingo 1999, ryuzuza igitabo cya mbere cy’urwunge rw’amategeko mbonezamubano kandi rishyiraho igice cya gatanu cyerekeye imicungire y’umutungo w’abashyingiranywe, impano n’izungura (ryatangajwe mu Igazeti ya Leta no 22 yo kuwa 15/11/1999);
  2. Itegeko N° 10/2009 ryo kuwa 14/05/2009 ryerekeye ubugwate ku mutungo utimukanwa (ryatangajwe mu Igazeti ya Leta nº idasanzwe yo kuwa 15/05/2009, urupapuro rwa 34).
  1. Itegeko ryerekeye imirimo nshinganwa cyangwa amasezerano, [igitabo cya gatatu cy’urwunge rw’amategeko y’imbonezamubano] (ryatangajwe muri Bulletin Officiel yo 30/07/1888, Urupapuro rwa 109).

 

Byateguwe na KAYIGI KAJUGA LEON
Umunyamategeko
E-mail: leonk.kayigi@gmail.com
Nyakanga 2015